The Expression of Anxiety Among Women Before Cesarean Section and Other Operations: A Comparative Analysis
INTRODUCTION. The stable emotional state of patients and sufficient patient awareness are related to a smooth perioperative period. The rising rates of cesarean section around the world as well as in Lithuania compel the search of effective forms and ways of care that address not only physiological, but also psychological needs of women. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of preoperative anxiety among women before cesarean section and other operations. METHODS. The data of 288 respondents after semi-structured interviews were analyzed. Of them, 77 had cesarean section and 151 had other various surgical operations. RESULTS. Women before cesarean section had more complaints of a psychological nature compared with women of the same age before other operations. Women were much more anxious before an urgent cesarean section that those who were expecting the elective cesarean section. Women residing in rural areas experienced more negative emotional reactions before cesarean section or other operations compared with their urban counterparts. In case of cesarean sections, the education of women was significantly associated with preoperative anxiety: more educated women were more likely to assess preoperative anxiety by giving it a lower score. In both case of cesarean sections and other surgical operations, relatives provide the most important psychological support to women before operations. The contribution of midwives and nursing professionals in providing psychological support to women before operations was found to be insufficient. CONCLUSIONS. The expression of preoperative anxiety was found to be especially high among women before cesarean section. As this study has mainly focused on the subjective symptoms of anxiety, in the future, it would be important to employ objective methods for the assessment of anxiety allowing for a more accurate evaluation of this phenomenon.
Correspondence to V. Piščalkienė Faculty of Health Care, Kaunas College/University of Applied Sciences, K. Petrausko 15, Kaunas, Lithuania. firstname.lastname@example.org