Changes of Health-Affecting Behavior in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
The objective of this study was to analyze changes in adolescents’ diabetes habits associated with nutrition, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption before the diagnosis of diabetes and 3, 6, and 12 months after the diagnosis of diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. In total, 90 13- to 17-year-old adolescents with diabetes participated in an anonymous questionnaire survey. Pretest and posttest design was used to conduct the study. The Wilcoxon paired sample test was used to determine the difference in groups. RESULTS. The study revealed that 46% of those who participated in the study did not eat regularly before the diagnosis of diabetes. However, 3, 6, and 12 months after the diagnosis of diabetes, the number of patients eating regularly increased significantly. Before the diagnosis of diabetes, 5.6% of the adolescents did not attend any sports. When the survey was repeated after 3 months, 63% of the surveyed claimed that they did not do any additional sports. After 6 and 12 months, the number of the adolescents not doing any sports decreased to 20% (P<0.05). Before the diagnosis of diabetes, 42.8% of the adolescents were smoking. However, 3 months after the diagnosis of diabetes, 22.7% were smoking; after 6 months, 30.4%; and after 12 months, 39.7%. Before the diagnosis of diabetes, 26.7% of the surveyed consumed alcohol. After 3 months, 7.9% of the patients admitted that they consumed alcohol during the last 3 months, i.e., after diabetes was diagnosed (P<0.05). After 6 and 12 months, 20% of the patients admitted that they consumed alcohol. CONCLUSION. Three months after the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, most of the adolescents ate regularly, there were fewer smokers and alcohol consumers, and the lowest number of those who exercised when compared with the findings of the surveys conducted before the diagnosis and after 6 or 12 months.
Correspondence to V. Bulikaitė Department of Nursing and Care, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eivenių 2, 50161 Kaunas, Lithuania. firstname.lastname@example.org